In the period that followed, in the so-called Dark Ages ( (8th century BC), the formed human communities, self-sufficient and clearly limited in complexity, did not seem to have the need for writing.

Nevertheless, from the very beginning of this period The background that made writing necessary again began to take shape: on the one hand the commercial turn of Evia to the West (the western Mediterranean), and on the other hand the strong contacts with the East (the eastern Mediterranean), as shown by the early introduction of inscriptions with Semitic writing in the Aegean and Crete.

In this context, in the 8th century BC. The first inscriptions with an alphabetic writing system appeared, the birth of the adaptation of a Phoenician model to the needs of the Greek language.

The views of researchers on the Mediterranean region in which the Phoenician alphabet was adopted are not identical. Some of them focus on the coastline of Syria, others talk about the Aegean area and others about Cyprus, where bilingual populations coexisted, using both Greek and Semitic languages.

The use of writing began to take on ever wider dimensions from the 8th to the 5th century BC

The development of dialects and alphabets through the Ionian colonization contributed to this development, the transnational contacts and – above all – the democratic institutions, which were based on the written registration of the laws of the city and the affairs of the citizens.

The use of writing in public texts, the public recording of laws, resolutions, accounts, etc., was the cornerstone of democracy in the Greek world, especially in Athens of Classical times, as it allowed access to everything that took place in a city-state.

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The Greek language over time: The invention of writing

The Greek language over time: The meeting of the Greek language with the writing

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